The Society is closed for Columbus Day, Monday, Oct. 13, 2014.
A recent post here reported, in glowing terms, the activities of Colonel Henry Hollingsworth of Elkton, most notably his efforts during the Revolutionary War. The blog described how Colonel Hollingsworth was a citizen, soldier, and entrepreneur. How he was the deputy quartermaster general for the Continental Army during our struggle for independence and how, after the war, he participated in the early industrialization of America by being a part of a local woolen mill. That mill made wool cloth in direct competition with British wool manufacturers. Finally, we noted how Col Hollingsworth offered a piece of that cloth to General Washington who accepted it with great accolades, both for the cloth and for the manufacturing efforts.
However, and there always seems to be a “however” when we talk about early American history, there is another aspect to Col Hollingsworth life that is not easily discussed because it is unpleasant to say the least. Henry Hollingsworth owned slaves.
The 1800 United States Census shows that there were approximately 2000 enslaved individuals living in Cecil County. That same census shows Hollingsworth owned 13 slaves between the ages of 10 and 70 years. His brother, Zebulon Hollingsworth Jr., owned 14. It is dangerous to say there is no documentary evidence around how the slaves owned by Henry Hollingsworth and his wife, Jane felt about their enslavement, because new documentation is always coming to the forefront; but it can be said that not all of their slaves wanted to maintain their status because several escaped to freedom.
Back in 2001, an intern from Goucher College named Michael Thomas Peddicord researched, wrote, and submitted a report titled The Hollingsworths of Cecil County for the Historic Elk Landing Foundation. In that report, Peddicord documented a pair of escapes.
Advertisements were “placed in The Pennsylvania Gazette… asking for the return of indentured servants. Colonel Henry Hollingsworth advertised on June 13, 1765 and August 7, 1766 for two separate individuals.”
Unlike George Washington, Col. Hollingsworth did not free any of his slaves upon his death. Instead, according to the Peddicord report, he willed them to his wife and children.
“After his death, Colonel Henry Hollingsworth: (quoting Hollingsworth’s last will and testament) ‘bequeath[ed] unto [his] dear daughter Mary Hollingsworth her choice of [his] negro girls Rachel (age 14) or Phillis’ (age 12) and the remainder of his slaves were divided amongst his children….”
Peddicord’s research showed that Henry Hollingsworth’s wife, Jane, freed one of her inherited slaves. “On the 1st of July, 1813 Jane Hollingsworth, wife of Colonel Henry Hollingsworth, manumitted her servant named Joseph Clarkson. At the time, Clarkson was under 45 year of age and ‘of a healthy constitution, and sound in mind and body’; other details about the man were undisclosed by the indenture.” There is no other official record of Jane Hollingsworth freeing any of her other slaves.
The Colonel’s brother, Zebulon, on February 8th, 1806, manumitted his 13 year old slave Jane, “or Jenny,” and indentured her to an apprenticeship until she was 28 years old. He then signed the indenture over to his daughter, Margaret, who was the wife of William Cooch, living near Newark in New Castle County, Delaware.
We will not editorialize around the slave holding practices of Henry Hollingsworth or any of the Hollingsworths. That is not our purpose. However, we will say that slavery is not an issue to be ignored. It was a part of American life from 1619 to 1865, not an insignificant period of time, and it is a subject that still tortures the American conscience. It is for that reason that it is worth noting and discussing slavery and its aftermath in Cecil County. In fact, the Historical Society of Cecil County is planning a project around the 50th anniversary of the end of segregation in Cecil County’s public schools next fall. More on that later.
Headquarters, Philadelphia County, 6th, October, 1777
From General George Washington
You will oblige me much if you will immediately upon the rect of this, set about making the most minute enquiry into the number and situation of the enemy at Wilmington. The force of the enemy, where their artillery is placed, any lines of redoubts, where their pickets are and of what number they consist. I beg you will inform me by letter or if you can spare the time, I shall be glad to see you personally.”
That’s the condensed version of a letter sent by Commander and Chief of the Continental Army, General Washington, camped at Philadelphia. He is making inquiry with Cecil County’s own Colonel Henry Hollingsworth, the army’s Deputy Quartermaster General, about the status of British forces in Delaware. The duo would exchange about a half dozen letters over the course of the next year while the British occupied Philadelphia, then our new nation’s capital. One of them, dated February, 1778 expressed the desperate situation the army faced during its winter encampment at Valley Forge.
“Sir, I am under the painful necessity of informing you that the situation of the army is most critical…. The troops have not had supplies of (meat) for four days and many of them have been much longer without. I must entreat you Sir to give all the assistance in your power, to promote this very important and interesting work.”
Washington and Hollingsworth would correspond again in 1781 as The General moved his forces south from New York to Yorktown, Virginia where those forces, together with those of the French, would defeat the British, thus ending our Revolutionary War, signaling the independence from Great Britain of our “free and independent states.”
Hollingsworth’s Revolutionary War service started before the shooting began with his appointment to the Maryland Committee of Safety, a quasi interim government for Maryland between the fall of the Royal government and the establishment of the new United States. According to the Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Pennsylvania, edited by John W. Jordan, once the war began, Colonel Hollingsworth was “commissioned January 3, 1776 as Lieutenant Colonel of the Elk battalion of Cecil County militia….” As deputy Quartermaster General, Hollingsworth was best at “organizing, equipping and forwarding much needed recruits, looking after the forwarding and furnishing supplies for the troops in the field….”
While he didn’t, Col. Hollingsworth could have been quite the name dropper as he had correspondence with a number of Revolutionary War characters including: Patrick Henry, Generals Lafayette, Nathaniel Green, Horatio Gates, and of course, General Washington himself.
Toward the end of the war, in 1780, Hollingsworth was accused of forgery and was investigated by the Maryland Assembly. In July, Hollingsworth was cleared of all charges.
After the war, Hollingsworth maintained correspondence with President and then private citizen, Washington. In March of 1798, less than 2 years before the General’s death, Hollingsworth sent a sample of wool manufactured at his Cecil County mill to Washington saying he thought such manufacturing would “further establish our independence by if possible as I could not think we ware Independent and while we are beholding to Britain or any other country for half we eat, drink, and ware….” Washington liked the wool cloth.
“The cloth is of an exceeding good texture, and well dyed; and I am persuaded will ware well…. The United States will be independent in name only, until essential arts and manufacturies (sic) are so established in them….”
Documents and letters to and from Henry Hollingsworth reside at the Historical Society of Cecil County in the Gilpin Papers which are available for research. A finding aid for the papers can be accessed through this link http://cecilhistory.org/aids/gilpin.html
Today, as we celebrate and observe the birth of our Constitution, we also remember the birthday of our own Col. Henry Hollingsworth, who was born on this date in 1737.
This weekend marks the 200th anniversary of the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British Naval forces during the War of 1812. Cecil County’s own Judge Thomas Jefferson Sample, who was a boy of 12 at the time, later expressed his thoughts on the battle as he experienced it living in far away Cecil County. He conveyed that account through an editorial, sent to the Cecil Whig in July of 1880. Attached is the portion of the editorial as it pertains to Fort. McHenry.
One of the persons Judge Sample (pictured here as portrayed by Mike Collins in April of 2013 at Historic Elk Landing) mentions in his editorial is one Col. Richard (Dick) Heath who, like Judge Sample, was a native of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Col. Heath gained notoriety 2 years prior to the bombardment during the media riots, also in Baltimore, in July of 1812. According to the October, 2011 Military Heritage magazine article “Intelligence” by Blaine Taylor, Heath was then a Major. Taylor writes that Heath’s 5th Maryland Volunteers were called to Baltimore to help quell rioting crowds who were trying to attack the editors of a Federalist newspaper along with their defenders. The newspaper was critical of the War of 1812. The Federalists were taken to a Baltimore jail for their safety. However, the crowds eventually broke into the jail; beat the hapless Federalists, some nearly to death. A local physician finally shamed the crowd into letting their victims go. Among the beaten was Revolutionary War hero, “Light Horse” Harry Lee of Virginia; the father of future Confederate General, Robert E. Lee.
The Society is closed Monday, Sept. 1, 2014, for Labor Day.
Ken Broomell has joined the Vietnam Veterans Oral History initiative as the project’s research historian. Ken recently completed his M.A. in history at Salisbury University, and is tasked with examining manuscripts, documents, photographs, and newspapers. To a large degree, these archival sources have not been studied so this investigation will add greatly to the project archives, which will be established once the initiative is wrapped up. He will also help with oral histories and other activities as the project advances.
The Society’s library will be closed Saturday, July 5th, 2014 for the Fourth of July Weekend.
The latest Cecil History Short has been released by The Historical Society of Cecil County, Evelyn V. (Vaggi) Scott, 80, talks about youthful days growing up in Elkton and the family business, the Howard Hotel. This is Part I. A conversation with Mrs. Scott will be released shortly in part II.
By Anne Reilly
Today (June 6) is the 70th anniversary of the D-Day invasion. The commemorations taking place on the beaches and in the cemeteries of Normandy draw our attention to the importance of remembering World War II. A recently processed collection of letters in the Cecil County Historical Society’s archive offers a window onto the experiences of Americans at home and abroad during the war. These letters were all received by Morton Field Taylor (1916-1998) between 1941 and 1946. His correspondents include servicemen writing from England, France, India, North Africa, and the Philippines, as well as friends living and serving in the States.
Affectionately known as “Mort,” Taylor was born on March 24, 1916 in Aikin, Cecil County, Maryland, where his father, William Lackland Taylor, worked as telegraph operator for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Taylor graduated from Tome Institute, a preparatory school for boys in Port Deposit, Maryland, in 1937, and received his Bachelor of Arts degree (with a major in English and a minor in speech) from the University of Maryland in 1942.
Due to health issues, Taylor was not drafted into the U.S. Army until August 20, 1943. He entered the service at Camp Lee in Petersburg, Virginia, and then completed basic training at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Here he became close friends with Hardy B. Smith (“Smitty”) and John R. Trickett (“Johnnie”). In a letter from September 1943 Taylor described training and life in the barracks to his parents. “We march here, there, and everywhere,” he wrote. “The balls of my feet are like 2 big blisters.” Yet he was thankful for the “swell guys” he had met. “We kid one another a lot—for a sense of humor is quite useful in living this life.”
Following training Taylor stayed at Aberdeen Proving Ground, serving first as an administrative clerk in the Ordnance Department and then as a classification specialist. In 1945 he was transferred to Fort Dix, New Jersey, where he remained until he was discharged on March 17, 1946. His friends from basic training, however, were sent overseas. The men continued building their friendships through correspondence. In July 1944 Smith wrote to Taylor from Assam, a region in northeastern India: “You lucky devil, so you’re still in the good old States, are you? Well if you know what’s best for you, you had better stay there as long as you can because it’s not exactly a picnic over here.” Despite hardships, Smith did enjoy some aspects of his time overseas. He reported on entertainments held for the servicemen, including a “swell party” given by the American Red Cross on Christmas Eve 1944. “An English Officer read the Christmas Carol and Santa came and gave each of us a nice stocking with things,” he wrote. “After he left we had a swell buffet supper consisting of cold turkey, and chicken, cranberry, cookies, cake, pickles, fruit salad, fruit, nuts, rolls, and coffee. Wasn’t bad either.”
Trickett, who was from Washington, D.C., had married and had a baby before he entered the Army. In April 1944 he wrote to Taylor from England, noting how much he missed his wife, Jane. “Got a letter from her yesterday and felt like somebody sent me a million bucks…Hope this damn war is over soon so we can all go home where we belong.” At some point in the summer of 1944 Trickett was sent to France, although it is not known if he was among the troops who landed on June 6. In August he wrote to Taylor describing the exhilarating atmosphere in the liberated country: “Nothing too good for G.I. Joe here. Cider, wine, cognac!!—Can’t put it into words, pal. Really, Mort, you don’t know what you’re missing. Elkton can’t hold a candle to this place.”
The majority of Taylor’s correspondents were friends he had met through the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity at the University of Maryland. They often addressed him as “Dad,” a nickname given to him because of his premature balding. Letters from these fraternity brothers usually included reminiscences of parties and dances that the friends attended before being separated, as well as descriptions of their stations, although details on specific locations were censored.
One of these fraternity brothers was Howard E. Elliott, Jr., known as “Howdy,” who graduated with Taylor in 1942. He joined the U.S. Army Air Forces and began training in Florida. By June 1945 he was stationed in the Philippines and reported to Taylor, “All in all it’s a pretty good deal over here. In fact I’m living a lot better than we did in the States. Four of us have just completed building our abode which has just about everything except running water. There are movies practically every night and plenty of books to read which by the way I have been going at most avidly. We also get a cigarette and beer ration which are most ample.” On September 2, 1945 he expressed his feelings on the unconditional surrender of Japan: “Well—it’s finally happened—signed, sealed, and delivered today on the USS Missouri. It’s really too good to believe in fact at first I was tempted to doubt its authenticity. It’s good to know that at last it’s all over and one can start to make tentative plans.” He looked forward to returning home and toasting Taylor at the Belvedere, a grand hotel in Baltimore.
Taylor also kept in touch with female friends and most of the letters from his male correspondents included advice about girlfriends. One young woman who prompted a great deal of discussion was Loretta French from Oklahoma City. Taylor met French in 1942 when she was visiting Maryland. At the time she was dating Taylor’s friend Samuel H. Tucker, Jr., who graduated from Tome Institute in 1939. By October 1942 Tucker was training with the Navy in Norfolk, Virginia, and his relationship with French was over. Taylor must have developed a serious interest in French shortly after she and Tucker broke up because in December 1942 his friend Frank Tyson, another Cecil County man, gave him some advice about her: “I do think that you and she should get married before you come into the army or some kind of service. If you are married, and happy, that means a lot in the service to a person. And if you are sure you love her, and she loves you by all means get married, why not? …If you are not sure, wait until after the war.” Perhaps intending to take this advice, Taylor must have written to Tucker about the situation. Tucker assured his friend that he was no longer in love with French, but cautioned him that she was rather fickle. He declared that the war had changed his perspective on women. “I have picked up new ideals as to what type of person I want for a mate,” he wrote from a pre-flight school in California. “A person to love, to live with, to share hardships with along with happiness; a person to be a pal, one to guide me, to keep me inspired to be a real man, and give me the desire to make good for her.” In February 1945 Taylor spent a weeklong furlough at French’s home in Oklahoma City. On Valentine’s Day 1945 she wrote to him, “You are about the sweetest most thoughtful person I know.” But by May of that year she had married another man. Taylor never married.
After the war Taylor was employed as a civilian member of the Center Commander’s staff at the Bainbridge Naval Training Center in Port Deposit, Maryland. He settled down in Perryville and became a member of the Cecil County Historical Society in 1946, serving at various times as recording secretary, trustee, curator, and president. Until his death in 1998 he remained a faithful volunteer, and he trusted that his letters—the record of his and his friends’ service during WWII—would be preserved here for future generations.
Reading these letters enables us to learn about the experiences of Americans at home and abroad during World War II. Through them we can also trace the bonds of friendship. Corresponding provided a way for friends to remain in touch in uncertain times. “If this war doesn’t end soon, many past relations will certainly be severed,” Howdy Elliott wrote to Taylor on July 20, 1945. “Here’s hoping ours won’t alter Mort—I sure would like to keep in contact with you—notwithstanding our constant moves.”
The finding aid for the Morton F. Taylor World War II Collection is available online here.
- – - – -
Anne Reilly is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of History at the University of Delaware. This spring she processed the Morton F. Taylor World War II Collection for a course in the Museum Studies Program.
Squirreled away on a shelf at the Historical Society of Cecil County sit some ledger books, 18 inches long by 6 inches wide. Some of their binders are pealing and their pages are frayed. But wait. These are not just any old books, ready fodder for mouse nests. They contain the day to day, sometimes minute to minute records of the Elkton Police department; the police blotters from the years 1951 to 1993 when the department began keeping digital records.
For the last few months, a graduate student from the University of Delaware has been reviewing the police blotters, inventorying them, putting them in boxes, labeling those boxes, and developing a finding aid to make it easier for anyone looking for information to locate it. So who might use these ledgers? Master’s degree candidate Elisabeth Maselli says they could be used for a number of different research projects such as genealogy, criminal justice, and anyone who wants a peek at Elkton, Maryland in the mid-20th century.
Elisabeth says that “peek” would reveal “small town identity stories,” especially around Elkton’s liberal marriage laws. “There are a lot of instances of runaways,” Elisabeth reports. “They are running way to get married. Police reaction is indifferent, but depending on the situation either takes the couple into custody, releases them to their parents, or allows them to go and get married.” In some cases there are instances of fraud committed against the unsuspecting and somewhat naive couples. “Some couples are scammed from time to time. Taxi drivers direct them to certain chapels. The couples go. They fill out all of the paperwork, pay their fees, and leave. Weeks later they still don’t have their certificates and they complain to the police.”
As noted, the blotters span 40 years, some of it a very turbulent time especially when it comes to civil rights. Elisabeth observes that there are not too many references to civil rights issues in the blotters. “Change is slow. The shift is much larger on the national level. There are some notes around freedom riders coming through town which are referred to as ‘suspicious persons at the diner,’ but no specific reference to the ‘Jim Crow’ laws of the day.”
One national news report that is referenced in the blotters is the assassination of President John Kennedy on November 22, 1963. “The officer then made a note of the event. It’s interesting that he would do that. It’s as close to a national reference that they come to aside from being on the lookout for felons who may be coming through the area.”
Elisabeth points out that once the ‘80s and ‘90s come along, the authors begin to make greater use of the blotter margins and NOT for official business. “They’ll write a Christmas countdown and note that it’s the holidays. In the fifties and sixties, that would not have flown.” The national bicentennial is also observed in 1976. “You can tell that maybe it’s a slow day or the officer just has some time, but he doodled American flags and made it a patriotic entry.”
In addition to placing the blotters in 7 labeled boxes and putting pictures from the era in separate folders, Elisabeth created a Twitter page with a different daily entry, so you can follow the “action” of the Elkton police from years ago on line at www.twitter.com/ccpolicearchive There is a link there to a blog with more information including the finding aid at www.wordpress.org/ccpolicearchive
Because the blotters cover a relatively recent time period, many of the individuals, both criminal and otherwise, are still living in the area. For that reason, Elisabeth explains that many names are redacted from the Twitter feed, however, she says “researchers may go to the original documents and look up individuals if they need to.” Ethnic slurs are also redacted, but, she says, “they are irregular and more the exception than the rule. It fades out over time.”
“It was a great experience” working with the documents at the historical society, Elisabeth adds. “The society was so supportive of my project.” Thank you, Elisabeth, for your efforts to shed light on and make available a piece of Elkton’s not so distant past.